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KAATSU Research

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Published Research

  Article
1. Blood flow restriction during low-intensity resistance exercise increases S6K1 phosphorylation and muscle protein synthesis.pdf
Summary: A bout of low-intensity resistance exercise with KAATSU stimulates S6KI phosphorylation and protein synthesis in muscle.  The activation of the mTOR signaling pathway appears to be an important cellular mechanism that helps explain the enhanced muscle protein synthesis during low-intensity resistance exercise with KAATSU.
Researchers from the University of Texas and the University of Tokyo.
2. Cardiovascular and metabolic responses to walking with and without leg blood flow restriction.pdf
Summary: Low-intensity walking with KAATSU Air Bands on legs elicits a significant skeletal muscle size and strength, but to develop cardiovascular fitness with KAATSU Walking, exercise intensity of over 40% KAATSU VO2peak may be required.
Researchers from the University of Tokyo, U.S. Military Academy, and the National Institute of Fitness and Sports in Japan.
3. Effects of 42 weeks walk training with blood flow restriction on muscle size and strength in the elderly.pdf

Summary: Slow walk training combined with KAATSU increased leg muscle size and strength when performed 5 days per week in the elderly.  Alo, decreasing the training frequency to 2 days per week maintained the training response and increased bone turnover, but that a further reduction in training frequency to once per week was no longer adequate.

Researchers from the University of Tokyo and the University of Oklahoma.

4. Effect of knee extension exercise with KAATSU on forehead cutaneous blood flow in healthy young and middle-aged women.pdf

Summary: Unloaded knee extension exercise with KAATSU increased forehead cutaneous blood flow.

Researchers from the University of Tokyo.

5. Effects of KAATSU on muscular function during isometric exercise.pdf

Findings: 5 set of 20 intermittent isometric muscle contractions at 20% 1-RM might not elicit the same neuromuscular or metabolic demands as dynamic muscle actions of the same relative intensity.

Researchers from the ​University of Oklahoma and the University of Tokyo.

6. Effects of KAATSU training on haemostasis in healthy subjects.pdf

Findings: KAATSU did not induce fibrin formation as assessed by fibrin D-dimer and fibrin degradation factor while potentially favorable change occur in fibrinolytic factors after KAATSU even under the conditions where the coagulation cascade may be enhanced.

Researchers from the University of Tokyo and Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency.

7. Effects of resistance exercise combined with moderate vascular occlusion on muscular function in humans.pdf

Findings: The combination of low-intensity resistance exercise and KAATSU is useful for accelerating the recovery of muscular strength in patients and older people.

Researchers from the University of Tokyo, Yokohama City Sports Medical Center, Urafune Hospital of Yokohama City, and Tanaka Women's Clinic.

8. Effects of resistance exercise combined with vascular occlusion on muscle function in athletes.pdf

Findings: Low-intensity resistance exercise combined with KAATSU caused in almost fully trained athletes increases in muscle size, strength, and endurance.  Neural, hormonal and metabolic factors would have been involved in these combined effects.

Researchers from the University of Tokyo.

9. Fatigue Characteristics during Maximal Concentric Leg Extension Exercise with Blood Flow Restriction.pdf

Findings: When performing exercises with longer inter-repetition rest intervals (i.e., only 15 repetitions per minute versus 30 repetitions per minute), KAATSU effectively increases the level of fatigue and thus may enhance the training effect.  A secondary finding is that inter-repetition rest intervals of less than 3.5 seconds and in the range of 1.5 seconds can increase the fatigue level and potentially the training stimulus.

Researchers from the University of Tokyo.

10. Hemodynamic and hormonal responses to a short-term low-intensity resistance exercise with the reduction of muscle blood flow.pdf

Findings: Short-term low-intensity resistance exercise with KAATSU significantly stimulates the exercise-induced Growth Hormone, Insulin Growth Factor, and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor responses with the reduction of cardiac preload during exercise, which may become a unique method for rehabilitation in patients with cardiovascular diseases.

Researchers from the University of Tokyo.

11. Hemodynamic and neurohumoral responses to the restriction of femoral blood flow by KAATSU in healthy subjects.pdf

Findings: The application of KAATSU on both thighs simulates cardiovascular effects of orthostasis in standard gravity on Earth.  It is also likely that KAATSU can be a useful method for potential countermeasure like lower body negative pressure against orthostatic intolerance in spaceflight.

Researchers from the University of Tokyo and Japan Manned Space Systems Corporation.

12. Hemodynamic responses simulated weightlessness of 24-h head-down bed rest and KAATSU blood flow restriction.pdf

Findings: KAATSU may provide an appropriate countermeasure for cardiovascular deconditioning as well as musculoskeletal decline associated with weightlessness.

Researchers from the University of Tokyo and Japan Aerospace Explosion Agency.

13. Increased muscle volume and strength following six days of low-intensity resistance training with restricted muscle blood flow.pdf

Findings: Low-intensity resistance exercise combined with KAATSU provides a sufficient stimulus for muscle adaptation with significant increases in quadriceps muscle CSA/volume and knee extension muscular strength following only 6 days (12 sessions) of training.  Low-intensity exercise with KAATSU appears to allow for faster recovery from training (no indications of muscle damage or inflammation) and thus an ability to train more frequently.  It is an effective method to rapidly induce skeletal muscle hypertrophy.

Researchers from the University of Tokyo.

14. KAATSU-walk training increases serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase in young men.pdf

Findings: Resting levels of serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (a bone formation marker) increased following KAATSU-walk training.  Low-intensity exercise combined with KAATSU can influence bone metabolic markers.

Researchers from the Tokyo Metropolitan University.

15. Muscle size and strength are increased following walk training with restricted venous blood flow from the leg muscle, Kaatsu-walk training.pdf

Findings: The combination of KAATSU slow-walk training induces muscle hypertrophy and strength gain, despite the minimal level of exercise intensity.  KAATSU-walk training may be a potentially useful method for promoting muscle hypertrophy, covering a wider range of the population including the frail and elderly. 

Researchers from the University of Tokyo and Tokyo Metropolitan University.

16. Neuromuscular fatigue during low-intensity dynamic exercise in combination with externally applied vascular restriction

Findings: KAATSU may enhance metabolic demands and intensity of exercises that leads to a combination of central and peripheral fatigue which may be partly responsible for why substantial increases in muscle strength and hypertrophy are observed at low-intensity resistance exercise combined with KAATSU.

Researchers from the University of Oklahoma and the University of Tokyo.

17. Neuromuscular fatigue following low-intensity dynamic exercise with externally applied vascular restriction.pdf

Findings: KAATSU may enhance metabolic demands and intensity of exercises that leads to a combination of central and peripheral fatigue which may be partly responsible for why substantial increases in muscle strength and hypertrophy are observed at low-intensity resistance exercise combined with KAATSU.

Researchers from the University of Oklahoma and the University of Tokyo.

18. Repetitive restriction of muscle blood flow enhances mTOR signaling pathways in a rat model

Findings: KAATSU Cycles significantly decreased microvascular oxygen pressure and enhanced mTOR (mammalian trget of rapamycin) signaling pathways in skeletal muscles using a rat model which may play a role in preventing muscle atrophy in skeletal muscle under various conditions in human studies.

Researchers from Dokkyo Medical University and Heart Center, Seirei Christopher University, University of Electro-Communications, and the University of Tokyo.

19. Resistance exercise combined with KAATSU during simulated weightlessness.pdf

Findings: Low-load KAATSU could be easily applied to space flight and utilized by astronaut.  Resistance exercises with KAATSU appears to provide an interesting combination of effect which may serve as a countermeasure to both cardiovascular and musculoskeletal deconditioning associated with weightlessness.

Researchers from the University of Tokyo, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Japan Manned Space Systems Corporation, and Showa University.

20. Rapid increase in plasma growth hormone after low-intensity resistance exercise with vascular occlusion.pdf

Findings: Extremely light resistance exercise combined with KAATSU greatly stimulates the secretion of Growth Hormone through regional accumulation of metabolites without considerable tissue damage.

Researchers from Yokohama Sports Medical Center, Tokai University, and the University of Tokyo.

21. Cross-Transfer Effects of Resistance Training with Blood Flow Restriction.pdf

Findings: Resistance exercise with KAATSU on the legs caused increases in the size and strength of arm muscles subjected to normal resistance exercise, the intensity of which was lower than that which would induce muscular hypertrophy.  Conversely, KAATSU on the legs did not cause any changes in untrained arm muscle.  Systemic factors released after KAATSU may be involved in this cross-transfer effect, but local exercise stimulus, even at low intensity, is indispensable for muscular hypertrophy.

Researchers from the University of Tokyo and Nippon Sport Science University.

22. Endocrine responses to upper- and lower-limb resistance exercises with blood flow restriction.pdf

Findings: Both lower body and upper body exercise with KAATSU caused similar increases in lactate, noradrenaline, testosterone, and IGF-1 concentrations, but lower body KAATSU exercise caused a significantly larger increase in Growth Hormone concentration than did upper body KAATSU exercise.  Greater Growth Hormone secretion following lower body exercise may be more advantageous for muscle hypertrophy over a long-term training period.

Researchers from the University of Tokyo

23. Thigh muscle size and vascular function after blood flow-restricted elastic band training in older women.pdf

Findings: KAATSU elicits significant gains in quadriceps muscle and strength, but does not decrease the vascular function in older women so KAATSU would be beneficial to address sarcopenia in older adults.

Researchers from the University of Tokyo, Seiri Christopher University, Toho University, and Dokkyo Medical University Hospital

25. Effects of low-intensity KAATSU resistance training on skeletal muscle size_strength and endurance capacity in patients with ischemic heart disease.pdf

Findings: Low-intensity KAATSU leg press, leg curl and leg extension exercise safely induces muscle hypertrophy nd strength and increases aerobic capacity in patients with stable ischemic heart disease.  This appears to be promising and useful in cardiac rehabilitation.   

Researchers from the University of Tokyo.

26. Skeletal muscle size and circulating IGF-1 are increased after two weeks of twice daily KAATSU resistance training.pdf

Findings: Two weeks of low-intensity KAATSU exercise produced increases in muscle size that were similar in magnitude to those reported in traditional high-intensity training of 3-4 months.  Increases in IGF-1 may have contributed to the muscle hypertrophy and strength gain.
Researchers from the Tokyo Metropolitan University, Rutgers University and the University of Tokyo.

27. Eight days KAATSU-resistance training improved sprint but not jump performance in collegiate male track and field athletes.pdf

Findings: 8 days of twice-daily KAATSU increased muscle-bone cross-sectional area and maximal strength that resulted in improved 30-meter sprint performance; however the moderate muscle hypertrophy and strength gains over 8 days was not sufficient to improve jumping performance.
Researchers from the Tokyo Metropolitan University, Rutgers University and the University of Tokyo.

28. Muscle, tendon, and somatotropin responses to the restriction of muscle blood flow induced by KAATSU-walk training.pdf

Findings: KAATSU walking for 15 minutes resulted in significant increases in plasma somatotropin and an increase in muscle hypertrophy in standardbred mares that may provide significant therapeutic and rehabilitative value in horses.
Researchers from Tokyo Metropolitan University, Rutgers University, and the University of Tokyo.

29. Kaatsu Training- Application to Metabolic Syndrome.pdf

Findings: KAATSU improved the physical conditions of individuals with metabolic syndrome including hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia and obesity.
Researchers from Satoh Clinic, Japan.

30. Applications of vascular occlusion diminish disuse atrophy of knee extensor muscles.pdf

Findings: Moderate vascular occlusion can effectively diminish the disuse atrophy of thigh muscles after ACL reconstruction surgery, although the effect may be specific to muscle types.  KAATSU would be potentially highly useful in the post-operation rehabilitation and for improving muscular function in bedridden old people.
Researchers from Yokohama City Sports Medical Center and the University of Tokyo.

31. Low-intensity kaatsu resistance exercises using an elastic band enhance muscle activation in patients with cardiovascular diseases.pdf

Findings: Low-intensity KAATSU exercise enhances muscle activation in patients with cardiovascular diseases and may be an effective method to promote muscle hypertrophy in patients with cardiovascular diseases and in older adults or in patients capable of tolerating only low-load resistance exercise.
Researchers from Hitotsubashi University and the University of Tokyo.

32. Key considerations when conducting KAATSU training.pdf

Findings: Results of a questionnaire survey in Japan to investigate the status of KAATSU including KAATSU performed by 700 patients per year with cardiovascular diseases where no serious side effects were found.
Researchers from the University of Tokyo.​

33. Enhancement of cardiac autonomic nervous system activity by blood flow restriction in the human leg.pdf

Findings: KAATSU could stimulate the activity of the autonomic nervous system, especially to enhance parasympathetic nervous system activity.
Researchers from Kyoto University.

34. Effects of KAATSU Training on Human Mitochondria-related Factors and Comprehensive Effects on Cardiovascular System.pdf

FindingsKAATSU significantly reduced body weight, BMI and body fat percentage that benefitted optimization of body composition, controlling body weight, and prevention of obesity, increased the secretion of vascular endothelial group factor (VEGF) and nitric oxide that benefitted promotion of the vascular tone and improvement of the endothelial functioncholesterol and triglyceride significantly decreased while the plasma lipoprotein lipase and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase synergistic increased which promotes fat decomposition, and could promote human upper limb muscle explosiveness and speed endurance. 
Researchers from the China Institute of Sport Science and the University of Tokyo. 

34. Tissue oxygentation, strength and lactate response to different blood flow restrictive pressures.pdf

Researchers from the University of Texas and the University of Oklahoma.

35. The Effects of Blood Flow Restriction Training on VO2max and 1.5 Mile Run Performance (Air Force).pdf

Findings​: Low-intensity KAATSU walking has a significant effect on aerobic capacity, running endurance performance and muscle hypertrophy.  KAATSU resulted in a significant increase in VO2max and thigh muscle cross-sectional area and significant decrease in 1.5-mile run times.
Researchers from Texas A&M

36. Muscle size and arterial stiffness after blood flow-restricted low-intensity resistance training in older adults

Findings: KAATSU could improve lower body muscle size, maintain arterial compliance in old healthy adults, and is a useful method for preventing and/or improving not only sarcopenia in old healthy adults, but also disuse muscle atrophy in elderly patients capable of tolerating only low-load resistance training such as multiple sclerosis patients and hip/knee arthritis patients.

Researchers from the University of Tokyo and Kaatsu International University.

37. Skeletal muscle size and strength are increased following walk training with restricted leg muscle blood flow, implications for training duration and frequency.pdf
38. Effects of KAATSU Training on proliferation and differentiation of goat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells
39. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell video.mp4
40. Muscle fiber cross-sectional area is increased after two weeks of twice daily KAATSU-resistance training.pdf
41. Effect_of_very_low-intensity_resistance_training_with_slow_movement_on_muscle_size_and_strength_in_healthy_older_adults.pdf
42. Modified Kaatsu Training - Adaptations and Subject Perceptions.pdf
43. Effects of short term low intensity resistance training with blood flow restriction on bone markers and muscle cross-sectional area in young men.pdf
44. Hemodynamic and hormonal responses to a short-term low-intensity resistance exercise with the reduction of muscle blood flow.pdf
45. Increased muscle colume and strength following six days of low-intensity resistance training with restricted muscle blood flow.pdf
46. Combined effects of low-intensity blood flow restriction training and high-intensity resistance training on muscle strength and size.pdf
47. Electromyographic responses of arm and chest muscle during bench press exercise with and without KAATSU.pdf
48. Roles played by protein metabolism and myogenic progenitor cells in exercise-induced muscle hypertrophy and their relation to resistance training regimens.pdf
49. Effects of low-intensity resistance exercise with slow movement and tonic force generation on muscular function in young men.pdf
50. Effects of a single bout of low intensity KAATSU resistance training on markers of bone turnover in young men.pdf
51. Day-to-day change in muscle strength and MRI-measured skeletal muscle size during 7 days KAATSU resistance training- A case study.pdf
52. Effects of Low-Intensity Walk Training With Restricted Leg Blood Flow on Muscle Strength and Aerobic Capacity in Older Adults.pdf
53. The effects of low-intensity resistance training with vascular restriction on leg muscle strength in older men.pdf
54. Acute growth hormone response to low-intensity KAATSU resistance exercise - Comparison betweeen arm and leg.pdf
55. Effects of walking with blood flow restriction on limb venous compliance in elderly subjects
56. Hemodynamic and autonomic nervous responses to the restriction of femoral blood flow by KAATSU.pdf
57. TestingMechanicalCountermeasures.pdf
58. The use of anthropometry for assessing muscle size.pdf
59. Haemostatic and inflammatory responses to blood flow-restricted exercise in patients with ischemic heart disease - a pilot study.pdf
60. Kaatsu Training- Application to Metabolic Syndrome.pdf
61. Muscle activation during low-intensity muscle contractions with restricted blood flow-2.pdf
62. Blood flow-restricted exercise in space.pdf
63. The effects of different initial restrictive pressures used to reduce blood flow and thigh composition on tissue oxygenation of the quadriceps.pdf
64. Overview of Neuromuscular Adaptations of Skeletal Muscle to KAATSU Training.pdf
65. KAATSU training as a new effective exercise therapy in a case of femoral medial condyle osteonecrosis.pdf
66. Three cases of disuse syndrome patients who improved by KAATSU training.pdf
67. KAATSU training in a case of patients with periventricular leukomalacia (PVL).pdf
68. Effects of low-intensity bench press training with restricted arm muscle blood flow on chest muscle hypertrophy- a pilot study.pdf
69. Evaluation of fetal status during KAATSU training® in the third trimester of pregnancy.pdf
70. The effects of low-intensity KAATSU resistance exercise on intracellular neutrophil PTX3 and MPO.pdf
71. Effect of KAATSU training on a patient with benign fasciculation syndrome.pdf
72. Effects of low-intensity, elastic band resistance exercise combined with blood flow restriction on muscle activation.pdf
72. Effects of low-intensity resistance exercise with blood flow resistance on coagulation system in healthy subjects.pdf
73. A case of dementia presenting remarkable improvement in activities of daily living through KAATSU training.pdf
74. Effects of blood flow restriction on cerebral blood flow during a single arm-curl resistance exercise.pdf
75. Effects of short-term_ low-intensity resistance training with vascular restriction on arterial compliance in untrained young men.pdf
76. Skeletal muscle size and strength are increased following walk training with restricted leg muscle blood flow- implications for training duration and frequency.pdf
77. Effects of Low-Load, Elastic Band Resistance Training Combined With Blood Flow Restriction on Muscle Size and Arterial Stiffness in Older Adults.pdf
78. Muscle activation during low-intensity muscle contractions with varying levels of external limb compression.pdf
84. Effects of KAATSU on muscular function during isometric exercise.pdf
87. Can KAATSU be used for an orthostatic stress in astronauts.pdf
88. KAATSU resistance training decreased the sinus pause in a patient demonstrating sick sinus syndrome. A case report.pdf
89. What phenomena do occur in blood flow-restricted muscle.pdf
91. Muscle oxygenation and plasma growth hormone concentration during and after resistance exercise- Comparison between “KAATSU” and other types of regimen.pdf
96. KAATSU training® as a new exercise therapy for femoral head avascular necrosis- A case study.pdf
97. A pediatric case with an unstabilized neck treated with skeletal muscle electrical stimulation and KAATSU training.pdf
99. KAATSU Leads to Secretion of Vascular Endothelial Cell Growth Factor-2.pdf
100. Acute Effects of Resistance Exercise w- Continuous and Intermittent Blood Flow Restriction on Hemodynamic Measurements and Perceived Exertion
101. Acute resistance exercise with blood flow restriction in elderly hypertensive women hemodynamic, rating of perceived exertion and blood lactate.pdf
102. Neuromuscular response to varying pressures created by tightness of restriction cuff.pdf
103. The effects of different initial restrictive pressures used to reduce blood flow and thigh composition on tissue oxygenation of the quadriceps.pdf

Presentations, Case Studies, and Articles

  Article
1. KAATSU (Ischemic Circulatory Physiology) Research at 22nd Century Project at the University of Tokyo Hospital
1. KAATSU_Training_Perspectives.pdf
2. Vascular_Muscular_and_Autonomic_Changes_in_Response_to_KAATSU.pdf
3. 2015_KAATSU_International_Symposium_Presentations.pdf
4. KAATSU_Magazine_Volume_1_Issue_1a.pdf
5. KAATSU_User_Manual.pdf
6. KAATSU_Interview_on_Super_Human_Radio.pdf
7. KAATSU_Rehabilitation_of_an_Olympic_Silver_Medalist.pdf
8. What_Is_KAATSU__3_Case_Studies_(at_Elite_Sports_Performance_Expo_-_London_2015).pdf
9. Use_and_Safety_of_KAATSU_-_Results_of_a_National_Survey_in_Japan.pdf
10. The_history_and_future_of_KAATSU_Training.pdf
11. Olympic_Swim_Coach_Christopher_Morgan_at_the_2017_American_Swimming_Coaches_Association_on_KAATSU_Aqua.pptx
12. Skeletal_Muscle_Hypertrophy_Induced_by_Novel_KAATSU_Rehabilitation_and_Prevention_of_Sarcopenia.pdf
13. Comeback_of_Roy_Burch.pdf
14. Effects_of_Blood_Flow_Restriction_via_KAATSU_Aqua_on_Speed_and_Endurance_in_Young_Water_Polo_Players.pdf
15. James_Stray-Gundersen_M.D._at_the_2014_International_KAATSU_Symposium_on_18_October_2014.mp4
16. Wonder_Mechanism_of_KAATSU.pdf
17. KAATSU-_Blood_Flow_Moderation_(Josh_Saunders_in_FC_Business_Magazine).pdf
18. Dr._Sato_Presentations_of_KAATSU_in_China_and_Russia.pdf
19. KAATSU_Overview_for_Strength_Matters_Summit.pptx
20. Dr._Sato_on_KAATSU_Immediate_effects.mp4
21. Todd_Lodwich_Olympic_Silver_Medalist_and_US_Flagbearer.mp4
22. Mikaela_Shiffrin_Olympic_Gold_Medalist.mov
23. Ted_Ligety_Two-time_Olympic_Gold_Medalist.mov
24. US_Olympic_Nordic_Skiers_-_Fletcher_Bros.mov
25. 3_Case_Studies_with_KAATSU_for_Boston_Red_Sox.pdf
26. Chris_Morgan_Former_Olympic_Swim_Coach_Boston_MA.mp4
27. KAATSU_Aqua_for_Competitive_Swimmers.mp4
28. FC_Business_Magazine.pdf
29. What_is_KAATSU.mp4
30. JAXA_Countermeasure_Technology_RandD.pdf
30. US_Olympic_Skier_Doing_Kaatsu_Legs.mov
31. KAATSU_Aqua_for_2014_World_Clinic_v.4_2.pdf
32. KAATSU_Aqua_with_Water_Polo_Team_Report.pdf
33. NASA_Testing_Mechnical_Countermeasures_to_Cephalad_Fluid_Shifts.pdf
34. North_Shore_(Oahu)_lifeguards_and_KAATSU.mov
35. KAATSU_testing_on_Sheep_in_China.m4v
36. Aioi_Nissay_Dowa_Insurance_Co._Ltd._Record_of_Insurance_Payouts_since_2004_to_present_2.pdf
37. KAATSU_Safety_Considerations.pdf
38. KAATSU_Magazine_Volume_1_Issue_2.pdf
39. KAATSU_Magazine_Volume_1_Issue_1b.pdf
40. Stem_Cell.mp4
41. KAATSU Magazine Volume 01 Issue 04 KAATSU Aqua
42. Equine_Athlete_-_Muscle,_tendon,_and_somatotropin_responses_to_the_restriction_of_muscle_blood_flow_induced_by_KAATSU-walk_training.pdf
43. KAATSU_Brochure.pdf
44. Dr_Sato_International_Society_Symposium_Presentation_2015.pdf
45. KAATSU Impact in Japanese
46. What_Is_KAATSU_Training.pdf
47. KAATSU_Effects.pdf
48. 2014_KAATSU_Conference_Dr._James_Stray-Gundersen_(Introduction).mp4
49. KAATSU_fast_twitch_and_slow_twitch_muscles.pdf
51. 2015_KAATSU_Conference_Dr._James_Stray-Gundersen_(Part_1_of_7).mp4
52. 2014_KAATSU_Conference_Dr._James_Stray-Gundersen_(Part_2_of_7).mp4
53. 2014_KAATSU_Conference_Dr._James_Stray-Gundersen_(Part_3_of_7).mp4
54. 2014_KAATSU_Conference_Dr._James_Stray-Gundersen_(Part_4_of_7).mp4
55. 2014_KAATSU_Conference_Dr._James_Stray-Gundersen_(Part_5_of_7).mp4
56. 2014_KAATSU_Conference_Dr._James_Stray-Gundersen_(Part_6_of_7).mp4
57. 2014_KAATSU_Conference_Dr._James_Stray-Gundersen_(Part_7_of_7).mp4
59. KAATSU_Leads_to_Secretion_of_Vascular_Endothelial_Cell_Growth_Factor.pdf
60. KAATSU_Corporate_Wellness_Overview.pdf
61. KAATSU_Distance_Running.pdf
62. KAATSU_by_Recovery_Pump.pdf
64. KAATSU_Intellectual_Property_(2015).pdf
65. KAATSU_Master_2.0_brochure.pdf
66. KAATSU_Master_2.0_Sell_Sheet.pdf
67. KAATSU_OnDemand_Overview.pdf
68. KAATSU_Core.pdf
69. KAATSU_Sell_Sheets.pdf
70. KAATSU_Sell_Sheets_2.pdf
71. KAATSU_Upper_Body_Standard_Exercises.pdf
72. Low-load_Ischemic_Exercise-Induced_Rhabdomyolysis.jpg
73. KAATSU-Magazine-Volume-01-Issue-01.pdf
74. KAATSU-Magazine-Volume-01-Issue-02.pdf
75. KAATSU-Magazine-Volume-01-Issue-03.pdf
76. KAATSU-Magazine-Volume-01-Issue-04.pdf
77. KAATSU-Magazine-Volume-01-Issue-05.pdf
78. KAATSU-Magazine-Volume-01-Issue-06.pdf
79. KAATSU-Magazine-Volume-01-Issue-07.pdf

Selected United States Issued Patents

  Article
1. KAATSU (Ischemic Circulatory Physiology) Research at 22nd Century Project at the University of Tokyo Hospital

Selected United States Issued Patents

  Article
1. United States Patent - US 9775619 B2: Compression and decompression control system and vascular strengthening method
2. United States Patent - 8021283 B2 Pressure muscle strength increasing apparatus, control device, and method being carried out by control device
3. United States Patent - US7455630 B2 Muscle Development Device
4. United States Patent - 7413527 B2 Muscle strength increasing tool
5. United States Patent - 8182403 B2 Pressurized-training apparatus and control method for the same
6. United States Patent - 8328693 B2 Compression training apparatus, compression training system and method of control
7. United States Patent - 6,149,618 - Tightening Tool for Muscle Training and Muscle Training Method Using Same
8. United States Trademark - 77/927,806
9. United States Trademark - 77/927,866


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